Backyard Farming Workshop

Backyard Farming Workshop

Backyard Farming Workshop

Advertisements

Building a Raised Bed with Pallets

We have been harvesting tomatoes, peppers and eggplant from our front yard. We grow these crops in raised beds.

If you have a some soil where you live, the best way to grow food is to plant using a raised bed.

What is a raised bed? It is nothing but a bottomless construction with soil like a sandbox.  Raised beds give you the following advantages:

  • Provide you with rich soil allowing your vegetables to grow healthier
  • Easier to weed
  • Fewer pests
  • Drains quickly
  • Plants are protected from pets (and kids)
Pallets

Pallets

How do you make a raised bed?

1. Find the space for it. You should have plenty of soil and sunlight (6 hours of sun.) It should be narrow enough so you can reach all of it from all sides. If you have enough space, you can have multiple beds. If you do, leave some room in between for a pathway.

2. The height of your bed should be from 1 to 2 feet. We use 4×8 rectangles.

3. Use anything for the walls that will stand up to water. We use pallets. These are discarded tomato crates, which we have in abundance.

You can use slates, scrap wood, or sustainably harvested wood. Now build a box. Any kind of construction of a walled enclosure will suit your purpose for a vegetable bed. The box will have four posts for the corners and you affix the wooden boards to the post.

If you are building using pallets, break the pallets and reassemble them with 4 planks side by side.  Affix the 4 planks to make the sides of your bed. You do this by placing 4 planks side by side and then using another plank as a base at the back. We used No. 2 nails to nail the plank to the base.  Leave an inch or so of the base board protruding so you can use this to bury the assembled planks (fence) to the soil.  We kept the fence steady by burying it a little deep and by supporting it with a cement brick on the outer side.

This might help if you’re buying lumber:

Planks assembled together

Planks assembled together

6 pcs. 2”x8” boards, eight feet long. Leave four as is for the sides, and cut two in half for the ends

1 pc. 4”x4”, six feet long. Cut into 4 equal parts.

4. Make sure to poke or break the soil where your bed goes a little.

5. Fill the bed with good soil. We combine the soil from our with biodynamic compost we have saved. If you do not have your own compost, buy the best soil you can afford. It is crucial that your beds have good soil. This will determine the health of everything you will grow in it. Fill the bed all the way up to the top.

4. We cover our beds with aviary netting to keep out our native hens and dogs. We just used long sticks on four corners of the bed to hold the netting in place.

Raised beds using pallets

Raised beds using pallets

5. You are then ready to plant. We start our seeds indoors in a nursery until they sprout. We then keep them in the nursery until the true leaves appear and are looking sturdy.

Seed Bank

“Seeds are more valuable than guns and bullets. –Lucinda Bailey a.k.a. The Seed Lady”

She might be right. Whether it be war or a disaster, seeds may be more valuable than guns and bullets. You can feed your family with seeds you have sown, or with a small patch of vegetables nearby. I still remember the last calamity. Entire communities were going hungry, cut off from the rest of the world. What if they had a homestead, or a community garden nearby?

We ought to start saving seeds. Call it survival packets.

Cherry TomatoSeed saving is an age-old practice. Traditionally, farmers would select the most robust and disease-resistant plants and then save the seeds during a season. With the advent of hybrid seeds however, farmers have stopped the practice of saving their own seeds. This is because seeds harvested from hybrid plants produce seedlings that are unlike and inferior to the parent seed. Also, most of the seeds you purchase are treated with fungicides.

Our small farm has started a seed bank. (Biodynamic practices require the use of untreated seed. One way to ensure that seeds are not treated is by saving the seeds yourself.) We bank on heirloom seeds that are open pollinated. These are seeds that have been handed down and successfully cultivated for generations. A vegetable variety can be considered an heirloom once it has been cultivated for over fifty years. Heirlooms have a different flavor. We have heirloom seeds for tomatoes, eggplant, and some varieties of corn. We even have seeds for purple corn, a locally adapted variety that we got from individual farmers. Heirloom seeds reward us with better tasting produce. Unlike the hybrid varieties, heirlooms can be saved and replanted every year. (Hybrid varieties require planting new seeds every year.) Additionally, heirloom seeds adapt to the location over time and what you have are resilient seeds that will grow abundantly where you are. They are more resistant to disease or to harsh weather.

Heirlooms

We’re looking to save more and more varieties of heirloom vegetables, flowers and herbs. We’re trying to find and collect heirloom varieties and then grow these on site. And then we collect seeds when they are fully ripe and dry.  Easy seeds to collect are from tomatoes and beans. As our climate becomes more erratic, seeds that have been passed down, adapted to our soil, and grown resilient over time, will thrive and produce better crops.

Saving seeds gives us the means to grow our own food. It is the key to food sovereignty because you know how to get food and exactly where it comes from.  A huge chunk of the seed market is already controlled by big companies like Monsanto and Bayer.  These seeds are treated with pesticides, herbicides or are even genetically-modified. If you are able to save your own heirloom, local, open pollinated variety seeds, you are able to replant and regrow them every year, without being dependent on the big companies that patent and control hybrid varieties.

To Everything There is a Season

What happens now, when farmers have lost the rhythm of the seasons? When there is no longer a time for everything: to plant; and to pluck what has been planted? And what happens when farmers give up on the land?

Every year for the last 20 years, we had sown seeds on December and then harvested a predictable volume on February.  It was perfectly orchestrated. The plants would shoot up, bud, and then burst forth in blossom for Valentine’s Day.  There was a season for everything: a time to plant; a time to pluck up what is planted.

Except this year. Up until February, our farmers were still waiting for the flowers to bloom.  By then, we had lost half of our harvest to the unusual cold.  The dependable season of wet and dry had gone awry. For the first time in 20 years, clouds blanketed the sun for days. And the cold lingered.  Before that, farms had to take on the epic winds of Pablo and Yolanda, or the torrential rains of Sendong.

The changing climate.  You hear about melting ice caps and rising sea levels and yet there’s very little said about agriculture.  You trust nature will find a way.  And perhaps, if there was a threat to agriculture, it wasn’t going to put farmers at risk soon.

Except that climate change doomsday for farmers is already here.

Extreme weather. And not only that, extreme AND unpredictable as well.  Mindanao, the country’s breadbasket, the fortunate south that used to be spared from storms, that is where our farm is. With the shifting weather patterns, we now have to bear the full brunt of storms.  You give all you’ve got for one planting cycle, extreme weather visits, and it’s pfft to 3 months of farming.  Toss in the changing rhythm of seasons and we could no longer foresee warmth or rain.  We previously timed sowing and harvesting to nature’s cycle of wet and dry. Except that the only predictable thing these last few years is that of torrential rains and violent winds. Everything is just up in the air!

DSC_7754What about small family farms everywhere?  The farmers plant for weeks. Wait for weeks. Weed, water, and reap. They are cash strapped and fall prey to usurious financiers who lend at high interest rates.  They enter into contracts with onerous traders who snatch up their crops at rock bottom prices.  They are beholden to landlords, financiers, and traders, working on land that’s quite often not theirs.  Except now they also have to weather the likes of Pablo, Yolanda and Sendong, and bank on a temperamental Mother Nature.  It is no wonder we have aging farmers.  Who wants serfdom, muscle and sweat, with almost nothing at the farm gate? They would rather go to the city and sit on a desk.

Drought and rain.  At the wrong time. Crops that wither or wash out. And famine or food prices that soar to record highs.

Perhaps it is none of your affair.  The poor vulnerable farmer, at the mercy of an extremely erratic Mother Nature. Who cares? You can enjoy the unusual cold with a cup of cocoa, or the hot day with a summer salad.

Except. It is this poor vulnerable farmer who actually supplies you the cacao that makes you hot chocolate. It is the poor vulnerable farmer who tends to the lettuces and carrots that make your salad. And when your farmer is not secure, the food on your table is not secure either.  You can only reap what they sow.

Salad Leaves

 

Far removed from the seed, the sprout, the produce that magically settles on our plate, we take farming for granted. We cannot appreciate the daily grind of the farmer who works the land.  We cannot grasp the medley of earth, nature, seasons and the farmer that bestows us fruit, flower, vegetable and grain. And because we can buy the fruit, the salad, and the rice at ease, in nice packages at the supermarket, we forget that it takes at least three months of industry to get anything from seed to plant.

“This magical, marvelous food on our plate, this sustenance we absorb, has a story to tell. It has a journey. It leaves a footprint. It leaves a legacy. To eat with reckless abandon, without conscience, without knowledge; folks, this ain’t normal.” –Joel Salatin

What happens now, when farmers have lost the rhythm of the seasons?  When there is no longer a time for everything: to plant; and to pluck what has been planted? And what happens when farmers give up on the land? 

Multiple Cropping, a Mitigation Strategy

The doomsday scenario for agriculture and food security has arrived. The climate is already changing. Along with mitigation strategies that would take the edge off doomsday, farmers will now have adapt to the changing seasons and the shifting weather that is already here.

More than these, we have to recognize that the unusual cold and the impending hot summer means more than just buying a scarf or air conditioning.  Extreme and unpredictable weather will hit us at the dinner table. Aside from our annual saga of waist-water floods and relief packs, climate change will threaten the food on our table. We all have a responsibility towards the land, the people who grow our food, and what we consume. This vulnerable country, our poor farmers, and our insecure food system will be hit the hardest. It is hard hit already. And we are running out of time.

“The average person is still under the aberrant delusion that food should be somebody else’s responsibility until I’m ready to eat it.” –Joel Salatin

Backyard Farming Workshop this August

BackyardFarm1stWeek2

BackyardSeriesSchedule

VENUE
The workshop will be held at the beautifully rustic Pavilion located beside a family farm at Fun Farm Pavilion, Sta. Elena Golf and Country Estate, Barrio Malitlit, Sta. Rosa, Laguna

FROM SLEX / SOUTHBOUND: Exit Cabuyao / Sta Elena. After tollgate, make a right. About 500 meters is the Sta. Elena Village Gate. Enter there and follow the sign to the Fun Farm.

FROM TAGAYTAY/STA ROSA ROAD: Make a left into Sta. Elena City (it is before Nuvali). You will pass Fontamara homes, Mesa Homes, Augusta, then you will reach Georgia Club Rotonda. Make right at the Rotonda. It is a long road. You will see walled communities such as Belle Reve on the right. At the end of the road is another Rotonda, make a left. Follow the long road until you see the Sta. Elena gate on your right. Enter and follow the sign to the Fun Farm.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Take the bus to Balibago, then take a tricycle ride from Sta. Rosa exit (tricycle terminal) to Sta. Elena City.

MEALS: All meals are included in the workshop fee. Healthy yet scrumptious meals made of local, organic or sustainable ingredients will be served by Pizza Morena by Jenny Burns. Please bring your own water bottles, plates and utensils. If you have any food allergies or preferences, please inform us so that we can discuss how your food needs can be met.

PAYMENT OPTIONS
Workshop Fees
Daily Basis: P2400 per day
P1800 Students/Seniors
Complete Entire Series (3 days)
Discounted Rate P7,000
Students/Seniors P5600

*Scholarships are available.  We have installment options too.

Fee includes
• Professional lecturers and experts in their field
• All course materials
• Healthy and delicious lunch, tea, coffee and water

Backyard Farming Workshop Series

Backyard Farming Series

Backyard Farming Series

Ecological Pest Management

This is the 6th of a Series on Backyard Farming.  This article deals with natural methods for pest and disease management and control.
We practice ecological pest management in the farm. This means that you manage the ecology of your farm and not just get rid of pests by toxic pesticides.
  • Build a strong ecosystem with healthy soil, mulch and organic fertilizer. Your first line of defense is a healthy soil. Your plants will be healthy if your soil is healthy. Healthy plants will be able to resist insect and disease attack.
  • Mulching is a good way to control pests.  The mulch will house beneficial insects and earthworms.
  • Crop rotation will keep your soils healthy too.  Make sure that plants and not planted on the same spot every time.   Multiple cropping or companion planting also helps rid you of pests and diseases.  These too methods will provide a continuous source of food and encourage beneficials insects to remain in your bed. See article on Crop Rotation and Multiple Cropping.
  • We practice cover cropping in our farm.  The legumes boost our soil’s nutrient content, build more organic matter in the soil, and prevents erosion.
  • Make sure you have plenty of earthworms too!
  • The kind of plants you have will be crucial for pest/disease management and control.  Make sure you plant varieties that are resistant to the diseases that are common where you are.  Also, plant the kind of plants that thrive well given your topography and weather conditions.

If despite a healthy ecosystem and healthy plants, you still have pests/disease here are some tips and physical controls:

1.  For temperate crops, keep the leaves dry.  This is because insects and fungus thrive on wet leaves.  Wet leaves also spread disease.  In the farm, we use drip irrigation to make sure that our leaves are dry and there is not too much water.
2.  Your best control is BIOLOGICAL control.  This means you need to understand the life cycle of insects or pests so you can control them.  Also, the more variety of insects and animals you have in farm, the better your Biological Control.
Beneficials3.  We rely a lot on Beneficial Insects.  These are using insects, microbes, or bacteria to control pests and disease. They keep the population of damaging insects under control.  Unlike pesticides, they only kill the BAD guys.  IN our farm, we use  ladybugs, lace wings or stingless wasps that feed on pests.   For example, ladybugs are able to eat up to 1000 aphids a day.  Lace wings eat more than 200 pest eggs a week.  Wasps (Trichogramma) are able to control up to 28 species of insects.  You can read more about nurturing and making use of Beneficial Insects here.
Homemadetrap4.  We also make Homemade Controls and Sprays.  Here are some of what we use:

  • Flypaper
  • Do-it-yourself Sticky Traps:  Hanging sticky traps in trees or posts can help capture a lot of flying insects.
  • Neem Citronella:  Neem does not immediately kill the insect. Instead, it alters an insect’s behavior or life. Eventually the insect can no longer feed or breed or metamorphose, and cannot cause damage.
  • Fish Emulsion (Fish Amino Acid/Foliar): More than a pesticide, it doubles as a great fertilizer. Fish emulsions are wonderful sources of nutrients.  Read about Fish Emulsion here.
  • Coconut oil tobacco
  • Raw milk and Raw whey
Common Pests:   These are the common pests you will find in the garden and our recommendations:
  • Worms and Caterpillars:  They eat the larvae of plants and eradicate seedlings.  Effective controls are beneficial insects, multiple cropping and crop rotation.
  • Aphids: Aphids feed on the sap of the plant. They also transmit disease. You get aphids usually from too much nitrogen in soil and too much water or over fertilization.  Control aphids maintaining balance in soil.  You can do this by lessening water use and in our case, spraying BD 501.  We also us Neem Spray and alternate it with Coconut Oil Tobacco.  Another way is to flush aphids with high pressure sprayer (fish emulsion/milk)
  • Leaf Miner- You can prevent Leaf Miner if you spray Fermented Fish waste and Milk. You can also use sticky traps.  Crop rotation is recommended for prevention.
  • Flea Beetle–These insects attack during summer months and usually Asian vegetables.  They like dry environments.  Control these pests by wetting beds and mulching.
  • White Fly- You can use a spreader sticker (sticky traps) or coconut-oil based soap spray to control White Fly.
  • Diamond Back Moth–These moths will attack cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage.  To prevent outbreak, control the moth that lays the eggs through light traps, ordinary mosquito traps or have sacrificial beds.
Common Diseases
Note that with healthy soil enriched with biodynamic compost, most of your disease problems will disappear.  However, these are common diseases you may encounter:
*Always remember to prune or remove diseased plants.
  • Mildew is a fungal disease and includes white patches on leaves, discolored or yellow leaves and wilting.  Remove the infected areas and dispose it.  Do not add to your compost pile.

-Powdery Mildew- During dry season, you may experience powdery mildew.  To control or prevent this, keep leaves wet.  You can also use milk spray or neem oil.

-Downy Mildew- During wet season, you may experience downy mildew.  Don’t wet leaves at night.  You can also use milk spray or neem oil for prevention.
  • Blight– This is bacterial damage that causes rotting stems and roots, black or brown spots and lesions.  Trichoderma can suppress blight.  Once you have it, make sure to remove the plant and dispose.  Do not put in your compost pile.  To avoid the disease, practice crop rotation and plant resistant varieties.

Good luck!  You will be able to manage pests and diseases with a combination of: (1) Strong Ecosystem; (2)  Attentiveness; and (3)  Good use of organic controls.